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【管家婆赢钱一句话】python元组与字典

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【管家婆赢钱一句话】python元组与字典

python元组与字典,python元组字典

一、元组

1.元组的表达

(1,2,3,4)
('olive',123)
("python",)

创建元组:

a=tuple((1,2,3,))
b=("python",)

2.元组功能属性

管家婆赢钱一句话 1 1 class tuple(object): 2 """ 3 tuple() -> empty tuple 4 tuple(iterable) -> tuple initialized from iterable's items 5 6 If the argument is a tuple, the return value is the same object. 7 """ 8 def count(self, value): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 9 """ T.count(value) -> integer -- return number of occurrences of value """ 10 return 0 11 12 def index(self, value, start=None, stop=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 13 """ 14 T.index(value, [start, [stop]]) -> integer -- return first index of value. 15 Raises ValueError if the value is not present. 16 """ 17 return 0 18 19 def __add__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 20 """ Return self+value. """ 21 pass 22 23 def __contains__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 24 """ Return key in self. """ 25 pass 26 27 def __eq__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 28 """ Return self==value. """ 29 pass 30 31 def __getattribute__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 32 """ Return getattr(self, name). """ 33 pass 34 35 def __getitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 36 """ Return self[key]. """ 37 pass 38 39 def __getnewargs__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 40 pass 41 42 def __ge__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 43 """ Return self>=value. """ 44 pass 45 46 def __gt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 47 """ Return self>value. """ 48 pass 49 50 def __hash__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 51 """ Return hash(self). """ 52 pass 53 54 def __init__(self, seq=()): # known special case of tuple.__init__ 55 """ 56 tuple() -> empty tuple 57 tuple(iterable) -> tuple initialized from iterable's items 58 59 If the argument is a tuple, the return value is the same object. 60 # (copied from class doc) 61 """ 62 pass 63 64 def __iter__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 65 """ Implement iter(self). """ 66 pass 67 68 def __len__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 69 """ Return len(self). """ 70 pass 71 72 def __le__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 73 """ Return self<=value. """ 74 pass 75 76 def __lt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 77 """ Return self<value. """ 78 pass 79 80 def __mul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 81 """ Return self*value.n """ 82 pass 83 84 @staticmethod # known case of __new__ 85 def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 86 """ Create and return a new object. See help(type) for accurate signature. """ 87 pass 88 89 def __ne__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 90 """ Return self!=value. """ 91 pass 92 93 def __repr__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 94 """ Return repr(self). """ 95 pass 96 97 def __rmul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 98 """ Return self*value. """ 99 pass tuple

3.元组的部分功能属性介绍

元组和列表有很大相似性,但是元组的元素是不可修改的,所以很多列表有的功能元组都没有。

1)count(self, value):

统计元组中包含value元素的数量,返回一个int值。

管家婆赢钱一句话 21 a=(1,2,3,4,1,2,3,1,2,) 2 b=a.count(1) 3 print(a,type(a)) 4 print(b,type(b)) 5 6 #运行结果 7 (1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2) <class 'tuple'> 8 3 <class 'int'> demo

2)index(self, value, start=None, stop=None):

索引,查找元组中value元素第一个出现的位置,start与stop参数是查找起始与结束位置,默认为None,返回int数值,如果查找中不包含这个元素,则返回ValueError: 'f' is not in tuple报错。

管家婆赢钱一句话 31 a=(1,2,3,4,1,2,3,1,2,) 2 b=a.index(3) 3 print(a,len(a)) 4 print(b,type(b)) 5 6 #运行结果 7 (1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2) 9 8 2 <class 'int'> demo

3)__add__(self, *args, **kwargs):

给元组添加一个新的元素,添加的新元素需要以元组的形式添加,生成一个新的元组。

管家婆赢钱一句话 41 a=(1,2,3,4) 2 b=a.__add__((5,1)) #括号理给出的必须是元组 3 print(a,type(a)) 4 print(b,type(b)) 5 6 #运行结果 7 (1, 2, 3, 4) <class 'tuple'> 8 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 1) <class 'tuple'> demo

4)__contains__(self, *args, **kwargs):

判断元组中是否包含某个元素,返回布尔值。

管家婆赢钱一句话 5 1 a=(1,2,3,4,1,2,3,1,2,) 2 b=a.__contains__(2) 3 c=a.__contains__(5) 4 print(a) 5 print(b) 6 print(c) 7 8 #运行结果 9 (1, 2, 3, 4, 1, 2, 3, 1, 2) 10 True 11 False demo

二、字典

1.字典的表达

{"name":"olive","age":18}

创建字典:

a={"name":"olive","age":18}
b=dict({"name":"lusi","age":18})

2.字典功能属性

管家婆赢钱一句话 6 1 class dict(object): 2 """ 3 dict() -> new empty dictionary 4 dict(mapping) -> new dictionary initialized from a mapping object's 5 (key, value) pairs 6 dict(iterable) -> new dictionary initialized as if via: 7 d = {} 8 for k, v in iterable: 9 d[k] = v 10 dict(**kwargs) -> new dictionary initialized with the name=value pairs 11 in the keyword argument list. For example: dict(one=1, two=2) 12 """ 13 def clear(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 14 """ D.clear() -> None. Remove all items from D. """ 15 pass 16 17 def copy(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 18 """ D.copy() -> a shallow copy of D """ 19 pass 20 21 @staticmethod # known case 22 def fromkeys(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 23 """ Returns a new dict with keys from iterable and values equal to value. """ 24 pass 25 26 def get(self, k, d=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 27 """ D.get(k[,d]) -> D[k] if k in D, else d. d defaults to None. """ 28 pass 29 30 def items(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 31 """ D.items() -> a set-like object providing a view on D's items """ 32 pass 33 34 def keys(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 35 """ D.keys() -> a set-like object providing a view on D's keys """ 36 pass 37 38 def pop(self, k, d=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 39 """ 40 D.pop(k[,d]) -> v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value. 41 If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised 42 """ 43 pass 44 45 def popitem(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 46 """ 47 D.popitem() -> (k, v), remove and return some (key, value) pair as a 48 2-tuple; but raise KeyError if D is empty. 49 """ 50 pass 51 52 def setdefault(self, k, d=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 53 """ D.setdefault(k[,d]) -> D.get(k,d), also set D[k]=d if k not in D """ 54 pass 55 56 def update(self, E=None, **F): # known special case of dict.update 57 """ 58 D.update([E, ]**F) -> None. Update D from dict/iterable E and F. 59 If E is present and has a .keys() method, then does: for k in E: D[k] = E[k] 60 If E is present and lacks a .keys() method, then does: for k, v in E: D[k] = v 61 In either case, this is followed by: for k in F: D[k] = F[k] 62 """ 63 pass 64 65 def values(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 66 """ D.values() -> an object providing a view on D's values """ 67 pass 68 69 def __contains__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 70 """ True if D has a key k, else False. """ 71 pass 72 73 def __delitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 74 """ Delete self[key]. """ 75 pass 76 77 def __eq__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 78 """ Return self==value. """ 79 pass 80 81 def __getattribute__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 82 """ Return getattr(self, name). """ 83 pass 84 85 def __getitem__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 86 """ x.__getitem__(y) <==> x[y] """ 87 pass 88 89 def __ge__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 90 """ Return self>=value. """ 91 pass 92 93 def __gt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 94 """ Return self>value. """ 95 pass 96 97 def __init__(self, seq=None, **kwargs): # known special case of dict.__init__ 98 """ 99 dict() -> new empty dictionary 100 dict(mapping) -> new dictionary initialized from a mapping object's 101 (key, value) pairs 102 dict(iterable) -> new dictionary initialized as if via: 103 d = {} 104 for k, v in iterable: 105 d[k] = v 106 dict(**kwargs) -> new dictionary initialized with the name=value pairs 107 in the keyword argument list. For example: dict(one=1, two=2) 108 # (copied from class doc) 109 """ 110 pass 111 112 def __iter__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 113 """ Implement iter(self). """ 114 pass 115 116 def __len__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 117 """ Return len(self). """ 118 pass 119 120 def __le__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 121 """ Return self<=value. """ 122 pass 123 124 def __lt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 125 """ Return self<value. """ 126 pass 127 128 @staticmethod # known case of __new__ 129 def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 130 """ Create and return a new object. See help(type) for accurate signature. """ 131 pass 132 133 def __ne__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 134 """ Return self!=value. """ 135 pass 136 137 def __repr__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 138 """ Return repr(self). """ 139 pass 140 141 def __setitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 142 """ Set self[key] to value. """ 143 pass 144 145 def __sizeof__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 146 """ D.__sizeof__() -> size of D in memory, in bytes """ 147 pass 148 149 __hash__ = None dict

3.字典的部分功能属性介绍
1)clear(self):

清除字典中的所有元素。

管家婆赢钱一句话 71 a={"name":"olive","age":18} 2 b=a.clear() 3 print(a) 4 print(b) 5 6 #运行结果 7 {} 8 None demo

2)copy(self):

复制一份元组,相当于一次浅拷贝。 

管家婆赢钱一句话 8 1 a={"name": "olive","age":18} 2 b=a.copy() 3 print(a,id(a),id("name")) 4 print(b,id(b),id("name")) 5 6 #赋值 7 c={"name": "lusi","age":18} 8 d=c 9 print(c,id("name")) 10 print(d,id("name")) 11 12 #浅拷贝 13 e={"name": "shy","age":18} 14 f=copy.copy(e) 15 print(e,id(e),id("name")) 16 print(f,id(f),id("name")) 17 18 #运行结果 19 {'name': 'olive', 'age': 18} 2915224 2019840 20 {'name': 'olive', 'age': 18} 2915304 2019840 21 {'name': 'lusi', 'age': 18} 2019840 22 {'name': 'lusi', 'age': 18} 2019840 23 {'name': 'shy', 'age': 18} 5584616 2019840 24 {'name': 'shy', 'age': 18} 5586056 2019840 demo

3)fromkeys(*args, **kwargs):【fromkeys(seq,value=None)】

创建一个新的字典,以seq为字典的keys(键),value为字典的值,默认为None。适合创建一个一样值的字典。

管家婆赢钱一句话 9 1 a={"hunan": "changsha","guangdong":"guangzhou","jiangsu":"nanjing",'hubei':"wuhan"} 2 b=dict.fromkeys(a,"good") 3 c=dict.fromkeys(["a","b","c"],"abc") 4 d=dict.fromkeys("abcc") 5 print(a) 6 print(b) 7 print(c) 8 print(d) 9 10 #运行结果 11 {'guangdong': 'guangzhou', 'hubei': 'wuhan', 'hunan': 'changsha', 'jiangsu': 'nanjing'} 12 {'hubei': 'good', 'guangdong': 'good', 'hunan': 'good', 'jiangsu': 'good'} 13 {'c': 'abc', 'b': 'abc', 'a': 'abc'} 14 {'c': None, 'b': None, 'a': None} #seq给出的字符串c是重复的,但是创建的键只取一个。 demo

 4)get(self, k, d=None):

获取字典中键为k的值,如果字典中不包含k,则给出d值,d默认为None。

管家婆赢钱一句话 10 1 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.get("a") 3 c=a.get("e") 4 d=a.get("e",5) 5 print(a) 6 print(b) 7 print(c) 8 print(d) 9 10 #运行结果 11 {'b': 2, 'a': 1, 'c': 3, 'd': 4} 12 1 13 None 14 5 demo

5)items(self):

遍历字典的一个方法,把字典中每对key和value组成一个元组,并把这些元组放在一个类似列表的dict_items中返回。

管家婆赢钱一句话 111 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.items() 3 print(a) 4 print(b,type(b)) 5 6 #运行结果 7 {'d': 4, 'c': 3, 'a': 1, 'b': 2} 8 dict_items([('d', 4), ('c', 3), ('a', 1), ('b', 2)]) <class 'dict_items'> demo

6)keys(self):

遍历字典键keys的一个方法,返回一个类似列表的dict_keys,与items方法用法相同。

管家婆赢钱一句话 121 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.keys() 3 print(a) 4 print(b,type(b)) 5 6 #运行结果 7 {'b': 2, 'a': 1, 'c': 3, 'd': 4} 8 dict_keys(['b', 'a', 'c', 'd']) <class 'dict_keys'> demo

7)values(self):

遍历字典值value的一个方法,返回一个类似列表的dict_values,与items方法用法相同。

管家婆赢钱一句话 131 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.values() 3 print(a) 4 print(b,type(b)) 5 6 #运行结果 7 {'c': 3, 'd': 4, 'b': 2, 'a': 1} 8 dict_values([3, 4, 2, 1]) <class 'dict_values'> demo

8)pop(self, k, d=None):

和get方法用法相似,只不过,get是获取字典中键为k的值,而pop是取出字典中键为k的值。当字典中不含键k时,d不是默认值时,取到的值就为d值,如果d为默认值None时,则KeyError报错。

管家婆赢钱一句话 14 1 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.pop("a") 3 c=a.pop("e","five") 4 print(a) 5 print(b,type(b)) 6 print(c,type(c)) 7 8 #运行结果 9 {'c': 3, 'd': 4, 'b': 2} 10 1 <class 'int'> 11 five <class 'str'> demo

9)popitem(self):

从字典中随机取出一组键值,返回一个新的元组。如果字典中无键值可取,则KeyError报错。

管家婆赢钱一句话 151 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.popitem() 3 print(a) 4 print(b,type(b)) 5 6 #运行结果 7 {'d': 4, 'b': 2, 'a': 1} 8 ('c', 3) <class 'tuple'> demo

10)setdefault(self, k, d=None):

从字典中获取键为k的值,当字典中包含键k值时,功能和get基本一致,当字典中不包含键k值时,在原字典上添加上键为k的初始键值对,并返回值d。

管家婆赢钱一句话 16 1 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.setdefault("a") 3 c=a.setdefault("e") 4 d=a.setdefault("f",6) 5 print(a) 6 print(b) 7 print(c) 8 print(d) 9 10 #运行结果 11 {'f': 6, 'c': 3, 'a': 1, 'e': None, 'b': 2, 'd': 4} 12 1 13 None 14 6 demo

11)update(self, E=None, **F):

给字典新增元素,没有返回值。用法:dict.update(dict2)。

管家婆赢钱一句话 171 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.update({"e":5}) 3 print(a) 4 print(b) 5 6 #运行结果 7 {'c': 3, 'b': 2, 'd': 4, 'a': 1, 'e': 5} 8 None demo

12)__contains__(self, *args, **kwargs):

判断列表中是否包含某个键值对,返回布尔值。用法:dict.__contains__(keys)。

管家婆赢钱一句话 181 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.__contains__("a") 3 print(a) 4 print(b) 5 6 #运行结果 7 {'a': 1, 'd': 4, 'c': 3, 'b': 2} 8 True demo

13)__delitem__(self, *args, **kwargs):

删除字典中的某个键值对,没有返回值。用法:dict.__delitem__(keys)。

管家婆赢钱一句话 191 a={"a":1,"b":2,"c":3,"d":4} 2 b=a.__delitem__("a") 3 print(a) 4 print(b) 5 6 #运行结果 7 {'c': 3, 'b': 2, 'd': 4} 8 None demo

 

一、元组 1.元组的表达 (1,2,3,4 )( ' olive ' ,123 )( " python " ,) 创建元组: a=tuple((1,2,3 ,))b =( " python "...

[python_Day2],python_day2

摘要:

对象

对于python来说,一切事物都是对象,对象基于类创建:

 

管家婆赢钱一句话 20

 

注:查看对象相关成员 var,type,dir

基本数据类型和序列

int内部功能

管家婆赢钱一句话 21 1 class int(object): 2 """ 3 int(x=0) -> integer 4 int(x, base=10) -> integer 5 6 Convert a number or string to an integer, or return 0 if no arguments 7 are given. If x is a number, return x.__int__(). For floating point 8 numbers, this truncates towards zero. 9 10 If x is not a number or if base is given, then x must be a string, 11 bytes, or bytearray instance representing an integer literal in the 12 given base. The literal can be preceded by '+' or '-' and be surrounded 13 by whitespace. The base defaults to 10. Valid bases are 0 and 2-36. 14 Base 0 means to interpret the base from the string as an integer literal. 15 >>> int('0b100', base=0) 16 4 17 """ 18 def bit_length(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 19 #返回该数字最少二进制位数 20 """ 21 int.bit_length() -> int 22 23 Number of bits necessary to represent self in binary. 24 >>> bin(37) 25 '0b100101' 26 >>> (37).bit_length() 27 6 28 """ 29 return 0 30 31 def conjugate(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 32 """ Returns self, the complex conjugate of any int. """ 33 pass 34 35 @classmethod # known case 36 def from_bytes(cls, bytes, byteorder, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown; NOTE: unreliably restored from __doc__ 37 """ 38 int.from_bytes(bytes, byteorder, *, signed=False) -> int 39 40 Return the integer represented by the given array of bytes. 41 42 The bytes argument must be a bytes-like object (e.g. bytes or bytearray). 43 44 The byteorder argument determines the byte order used to represent the 45 integer. If byteorder is 'big', the most significant byte is at the 46 beginning of the byte array. If byteorder is 'little', the most 47 significant byte is at the end of the byte array. To request the native 48 byte order of the host system, use `sys.byteorder' as the byte order value. 49 50 The signed keyword-only argument indicates whether two's complement is 51 used to represent the integer. 52 """ 53 pass 54 55 def to_bytes(self, length, byteorder, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown; NOTE: unreliably restored from __doc__ 56 """ 57 int.to_bytes(length, byteorder, *, signed=False) -> bytes 58 59 Return an array of bytes representing an integer. 60 61 The integer is represented using length bytes. An OverflowError is 62 raised if the integer is not representable with the given number of 63 bytes. 64 65 The byteorder argument determines the byte order used to represent the 66 integer. If byteorder is 'big', the most significant byte is at the 67 beginning of the byte array. If byteorder is 'little', the most 68 significant byte is at the end of the byte array. To request the native 69 byte order of the host system, use `sys.byteorder' as the byte order value. 70 71 The signed keyword-only argument determines whether two's complement is 72 used to represent the integer. If signed is False and a negative integer 73 is given, an OverflowError is raised. 74 """ 75 pass 76 77 def __abs__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 78 """ abs(self) """ 79 pass 80 81 def __add__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 82 """ Return self+value. """ 83 pass 84 85 def __and__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 86 """ Return self&value. """ 87 pass 88 89 def __bool__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 90 """ self != 0 """ 91 pass 92 93 def __ceil__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 94 """ Ceiling of an Integral returns itself. """ 95 pass 96 97 def __divmod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 98 #相除,得到商和余数组成的元组 99 """ Return divmod(self, value). """ 100 pass 101 102 def __eq__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 103 """ Return self==value. """ 104 pass 105 106 def __float__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 107 """ float(self) """ 108 pass 109 110 def __floordiv__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 111 """ Return self//value. """ 112 pass 113 114 def __floor__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 115 """ Flooring an Integral returns itself. """ 116 pass 117 118 def __format__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 119 pass 120 121 def __getattribute__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 122 """ Return getattr(self, name). """ 123 pass 124 125 def __getnewargs__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 126 pass 127 128 def __ge__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 129 """ Return self>=value. """ 130 pass 131 132 def __gt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 133 """ Return self>value. """ 134 pass 135 136 def __hash__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 137 """ Return hash(self). """ 138 pass 139 140 def __index__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 141 """ Return self converted to an integer, if self is suitable for use as an index into a list. """ 142 pass 143 144 def __init__(self, x, base=10): # known special case of int.__init__ 145 #构造方法 146 """ 147 int(x=0) -> integer 148 int(x, base=10) -> integer 149 150 Convert a number or string to an integer, or return 0 if no arguments 151 are given. If x is a number, return x.__int__(). For floating point 152 numbers, this truncates towards zero. 153 154 If x is not a number or if base is given, then x must be a string, 155 bytes, or bytearray instance representing an integer literal in the 156 given base. The literal can be preceded by '+' or '-' and be surrounded 157 by whitespace. The base defaults to 10. Valid bases are 0 and 2-36. 158 Base 0 means to interpret the base from the string as an integer literal. 159 >>> int('0b100', base=0) 160 4 161 # (copied from class doc) 162 """ 163 pass 164 165 def __int__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 166 """ int(self) """ 167 pass 168 169 def __invert__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 170 """ ~self """ 171 pass 172 173 def __le__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 174 """ Return self<=value. """ 175 pass 176 177 def __lshift__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 178 """ Return self<<value. """ 179 pass 180 181 def __lt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 182 """ Return self<value. """ 183 pass 184 185 def __mod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 186 """ Return self%value. """ 187 pass 188 189 def __mul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 190 """ Return self*value. """ 191 pass 192 193 def __neg__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 194 """ -self """ 195 pass 196 197 @staticmethod # known case of __new__ 198 def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 199 """ Create and return a new object. See help(type) for accurate signature. """ 200 pass 201 202 def __ne__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 203 """ Return self!=value. """ 204 pass 205 206 def __or__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 207 """ Return self|value. """ 208 pass 209 210 def __pos__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 211 """ +self """ 212 pass 213 214 def __pow__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 215 """ Return pow(self, value, mod). """ 216 pass 217 218 def __radd__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 219 """ Return value+self. """ 220 pass 221 222 def __rand__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 223 """ Return value&self. """ 224 pass 225 226 def __rdivmod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 227 """ Return divmod(value, self). """ 228 pass 229 230 def __repr__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 231 #转化为解释器可读取的形式 232 """ Return repr(self). """ 233 pass 234 235 def __rfloordiv__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 236 """ Return value//self. """ 237 pass 238 239 def __rlshift__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 240 """ Return value<<self. """ 241 pass 242 243 def __rmod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 244 """ Return value%self. """ 245 pass 246 247 def __rmul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 248 """ Return value*self. """ 249 pass 250 251 def __ror__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 252 """ Return value|self. """ 253 pass 254 255 def __round__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 256 """ 257 Rounding an Integral returns itself. 258 Rounding with an ndigits argument also returns an integer. 259 """ 260 pass 261 262 def __rpow__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 263 """ Return pow(value, self, mod). """ 264 pass 265 266 def __rrshift__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 267 """ Return value>>self. """ 268 pass 269 270 def __rshift__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 271 """ Return self>>value. """ 272 pass 273 274 def __rsub__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 275 """ Return value-self. """ 276 pass 277 278 def __rtruediv__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 279 """ Return value/self. """ 280 pass 281 282 def __rxor__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 283 """ Return value^self. """ 284 pass 285 286 def __sizeof__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 287 """ Returns size in memory, in bytes """ 288 pass 289 290 def __str__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 291 """ Return str(self). """ 292 pass 293 294 def __sub__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 295 """ Return self-value. """ 296 pass 297 298 def __truediv__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 299 """ Return self/value. """ 300 pass 301 302 def __trunc__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 303 """ Truncating an Integral returns itself. """ 304 pass 305 306 def __xor__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 307 """ Return self^value. """ 308 pass 309 310 denominator = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None) # default 311 """the denominator of a rational number in lowest terms""" 312 313 imag = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None) # default 314 """the imaginary part of a complex number""" 315 316 numerator = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None) # default 317 """the numerator of a rational number in lowest terms""" 318 319 real = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None) # default 320 """the real part of a complex number""" View Code

几个常用的功能:

float内部功能

管家婆赢钱一句话 22 1 class float(object): 2 """ 3 float(x) -> floating point number 4 5 Convert a string or number to a floating point number, if possible. 6 """ 7 def as_integer_ratio(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 8 #获取浮点数化为分数的最简比 9 """ 10 float.as_integer_ratio() -> (int, int) 11 12 Return a pair of integers, whose ratio is exactly equal to the original 13 float and with a positive denominator. 14 Raise OverflowError on infinities and a ValueError on NaNs. 15 16 >>> (10.0).as_integer_ratio() 17 (10, 1) 18 >>> (0.0).as_integer_ratio() 19 (0, 1) 20 >>> (-.25).as_integer_ratio() 21 (-1, 4) 22 """ 23 pass 24 25 def conjugate(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 26 """ Return self, the complex conjugate of any float. """ 27 pass 28 29 def fromhex(self, string): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 30 """ 31 float.fromhex(string) -> float 32 33 Create a floating-point number from a hexadecimal string. 34 >>> float.fromhex('0x1.ffffp10') 35 2047.984375 36 >>> float.fromhex('-0x1p-1074') 37 -5e-324 38 """ 39 return 0.0 40 41 def hex(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 42 """ 43 float.hex() -> string 44 45 Return a hexadecimal representation of a floating-point number. 46 >>> (-0.1).hex() 47 '-0x1.999999999999ap-4' 48 >>> 3.14159.hex() 49 '0x1.921f9f01b866ep+1' 50 """ 51 return "" 52 53 def is_integer(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 54 """ Return True if the float is an integer. """ 55 pass 56 57 def __abs__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 58 """ abs(self) """ 59 pass 60 61 def __add__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 62 """ Return self+value. """ 63 pass 64 65 def __bool__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 66 """ self != 0 """ 67 pass 68 69 def __divmod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 70 """ Return divmod(self, value). """ 71 pass 72 73 def __eq__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 74 """ Return self==value. """ 75 pass 76 77 def __float__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 78 """ float(self) """ 79 pass 80 81 def __floordiv__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 82 """ Return self//value. """ 83 pass 84 85 def __format__(self, format_spec): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 86 """ 87 float.__format__(format_spec) -> string 88 89 Formats the float according to format_spec. 90 """ 91 return "" 92 93 def __getattribute__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 94 """ Return getattr(self, name). """ 95 pass 96 97 def __getformat__(self, typestr): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 98 """ 99 float.__getformat__(typestr) -> string 100 101 You probably don't want to use this function. It exists mainly to be 102 used in Python's test suite. 103 104 typestr must be 'double' or 'float'. This function returns whichever of 105 'unknown', 'IEEE, big-endian' or 'IEEE, little-endian' best describes the 106 format of floating point numbers used by the C type named by typestr. 107 """ 108 return "" 109 110 def __getnewargs__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 111 pass 112 113 def __ge__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 114 """ Return self>=value. """ 115 pass 116 117 def __gt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 118 """ Return self>value. """ 119 pass 120 121 def __hash__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 122 """ Return hash(self). """ 123 pass 124 125 def __init__(self, x): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 126 pass 127 128 def __int__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 129 """ int(self) """ 130 pass 131 132 def __le__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 133 """ Return self<=value. """ 134 pass 135 136 def __lt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 137 """ Return self<value. """ 138 pass 139 140 def __mod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 141 """ Return self%value. """ 142 pass 143 144 def __mul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 145 """ Return self*value. """ 146 pass 147 148 def __neg__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 149 """ -self """ 150 pass 151 152 @staticmethod # known case of __new__ 153 def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 154 """ Create and return a new object. See help(type) for accurate signature. """ 155 pass 156 157 def __ne__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 158 """ Return self!=value. """ 159 pass 160 161 def __pos__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 162 """ +self """ 163 pass 164 165 def __pow__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 166 """ Return pow(self, value, mod). """ 167 pass 168 169 def __radd__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 170 """ Return value+self. """ 171 pass 172 173 def __rdivmod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 174 """ Return divmod(value, self). """ 175 pass 176 177 def __repr__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 178 """ Return repr(self). """ 179 pass 180 181 def __rfloordiv__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 182 """ Return value//self. """ 183 pass 184 185 def __rmod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 186 """ Return value%self. """ 187 pass 188 189 def __rmul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 190 """ Return value*self. """ 191 pass 192 193 def __round__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 194 """ 195 Return the Integral closest to x, rounding half toward even. 196 When an argument is passed, work like built-in round(x, ndigits). 197 """ 198 pass 199 200 def __rpow__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 201 """ Return pow(value, self, mod). """ 202 pass 203 204 def __rsub__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 205 """ Return value-self. """ 206 pass 207 208 def __rtruediv__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 209 """ Return value/self. """ 210 pass 211 212 def __setformat__(self, typestr, fmt): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 213 """ 214 float.__setformat__(typestr, fmt) -> None 215 216 You probably don't want to use this function. It exists mainly to be 217 used in Python's test suite. 218 219 typestr must be 'double' or 'float'. fmt must be one of 'unknown', 220 'IEEE, big-endian' or 'IEEE, little-endian', and in addition can only be 221 one of the latter two if it appears to match the underlying C reality. 222 223 Override the automatic determination of C-level floating point type. 224 This affects how floats are converted to and from binary strings. 225 """ 226 pass 227 228 def __str__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 229 """ Return str(self). """ 230 pass 231 232 def __sub__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 233 """ Return self-value. """ 234 pass 235 236 def __truediv__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 237 """ Return self/value. """ 238 pass 239 240 def __trunc__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 241 """ Return the Integral closest to x between 0 and x. """ 242 pass 243 244 imag = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None) # default 245 """the imaginary part of a complex number""" 246 247 real = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None) # default 248 """the real part of a complex number""" 249 250 251 252 class FloatingPointError(ArithmeticError): 253 """ Floating point operation failed. """ 254 def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 255 pass 256 257 @staticmethod # known case of __new__ 258 def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 259 """ Create and return a new object. See help(type) for accurate signature. """ 260 pass View Code

str内部功能

管家婆赢钱一句话 23 1 class str(object): 2 """ 3 str(object='') -> str 4 str(bytes_or_buffer[, encoding[, errors]]) -> str 5 6 Create a new string object from the given object. If encoding or 7 errors is specified, then the object must expose a data buffer 8 that will be decoded using the given encoding and error handler. 9 Otherwise, returns the result of object.__str__() (if defined) 10 or repr(object). 11 encoding defaults to sys.getdefaultencoding(). 12 errors defaults to 'strict'. 13 """ 14 def capitalize(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 15 #首字母大写化 16 """ 17 S.capitalize() -> str 18 19 Return a capitalized version of S, i.e. make the first character 20 have upper case and the rest lower case. 21 """ 22 return "" 23 24 def casefold(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 25 #小写化,适用于所有国家语言,如英语,德语 26 """ 27 S.casefold() -> str 28 29 Return a version of S suitable for caseless comparisons. 30 """ 31 return "" 32 33 def center(self, width, fillchar=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 34 #居中 35 """ 36 S.center(width[, fillchar]) -> str 37 38 Return S centered in a string of length width. Padding is 39 done using the specified fill character (default is a space) 40 """ 41 return "" 42 43 def count(self, sub, start=None, end=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 44 #统计字符串内子串出现次数,可指定范围 45 """ 46 S.count(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int 47 48 Return the number of non-overlapping occurrences of substring sub in 49 string S[start:end]. Optional arguments start and end are 50 interpreted as in slice notation. 51 """ 52 return 0 53 54 def encode(self, encoding='utf-8', errors='strict'): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 55 #编码 56 """ 57 S.encode(encoding='utf-8', errors='strict') -> bytes 58 59 Encode S using the codec registered for encoding. Default encoding 60 is 'utf-8'. errors may be given to set a different error 61 handling scheme. Default is 'strict' meaning that encoding errors raise 62 a UnicodeEncodeError. Other possible values are 'ignore', 'replace' and 63 'xmlcharrefreplace' as well as any other name registered with 64 codecs.register_error that can handle UnicodeEncodeErrors. 65 """ 66 return b"" 67 68 def endswith(self, suffix, start=None, end=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 69 #判断指定范围字符串是否以某个字符串或子串结尾 70 """ 71 S.endswith(suffix[, start[, end]]) -> bool 72 73 Return True if S ends with the specified suffix, False otherwise. 74 With optional start, test S beginning at that position. 75 With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. 76 suffix can also be a tuple of strings to try. 77 """ 78 return False 79 80 def expandtabs(self, tabsize=8): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 81 #把tab转换成空格,默认一个tab8个空格 82 """ 83 S.expandtabs(tabsize=8) -> str 84 85 Return a copy of S where all tab characters are expanded using spaces. 86 If tabsize is not given, a tab size of 8 characters is assumed. 87 """ 88 return "" 89 90 def find(self, sub, start=None, end=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 91 #find()定位子串在字符串中第一次出现的位置,无则返回-1 92 """ 93 S.find(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int 94 95 Return the lowest index in S where substring sub is found, 96 such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional 97 arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation. 98 99 Return -1 on failure. 100 """ 101 return 0 102 103 def format(self, *args, **kwargs): # known special case of str.format 104 #字符串格式化 105 """ 106 S.format(*args, **kwargs) -> str 107 108 Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from args and kwargs. 109 The substitutions are identified by braces ('{' and '}'). 110 """ 111 pass 112 113 def format_map(self, mapping): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 114 """ 115 S.format_map(mapping) -> str 116 117 Return a formatted version of S, using substitutions from mapping. 118 The substitutions are identified by braces ('{' and '}'). 119 """ 120 return "" 121 122 def index(self, sub, start=None, end=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 123 #index()定位子串在字符串中第一次出现的位置,无则报错 124 """ 125 S.index(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int 126 127 Like S.find() but raise ValueError when the substring is not found. 128 """ 129 return 0 130 131 def isalnum(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 132 #是否是字母和数字 133 """ 134 S.isalnum() -> bool 135 136 Return True if all characters in S are alphanumeric 137 and there is at least one character in S, False otherwise. 138 """ 139 return False 140 141 def isalpha(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 142 #是否是字母 143 """ 144 S.isalpha() -> bool 145 146 Return True if all characters in S are alphabetic 147 and there is at least one character in S, False otherwise. 148 """ 149 return False 150 151 def isdecimal(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 152 """ 153 S.isdecimal() -> bool 154 155 Return True if there are only decimal characters in S, 156 False otherwise. 157 """ 158 return False 159 160 def isdigit(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 161 #是否是数字 162 """ 163 S.isdigit() -> bool 164 165 Return True if all characters in S are digits 166 and there is at least one character in S, False otherwise. 167 """ 168 return False 169 170 def isidentifier(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 171 """ 172 S.isidentifier() -> bool 173 174 Return True if S is a valid identifier according 175 to the language definition. 176 177 Use keyword.iskeyword() to test for reserved identifiers 178 such as "def" and "class". 179 """ 180 return False 181 182 def islower(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 183 #是否是小写 184 """ 185 S.islower() -> bool 186 187 Return True if all cased characters in S are lowercase and there is 188 at least one cased character in S, False otherwise. 189 """ 190 return False 191 192 def isnumeric(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 193 """ 194 S.isnumeric() -> bool 195 196 Return True if there are only numeric characters in S, 197 False otherwise. 198 """ 199 return False 200 201 def isprintable(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 202 """ 203 S.isprintable() -> bool 204 205 Return True if all characters in S are considered 206 printable in repr() or S is empty, False otherwise. 207 """ 208 return False 209 210 def isspace(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 211 """ 212 S.isspace() -> bool 213 214 Return True if all characters in S are whitespace 215 and there is at least one character in S, False otherwise. 216 """ 217 return False 218 219 def istitle(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 220 """ 221 S.istitle() -> bool 222 223 Return True if S is a titlecased string and there is at least one 224 character in S, i.e. upper- and titlecase characters may only 225 follow uncased characters and lowercase characters only cased ones. 226 Return False otherwise. 227 """ 228 return False 229 230 def isupper(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 231 """ 232 S.isupper() -> bool 233 234 Return True if all cased characters in S are uppercase and there is 235 at least one cased character in S, False otherwise. 236 """ 237 return False 238 239 def join(self, iterable): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 240 #拼接字符串,将字符串连接起来 241 """ 242 S.join(iterable) -> str 243 244 Return a string which is the concatenation of the strings in the 245 iterable. The separator between elements is S. 246 """ 247 return "" 248 249 def ljust(self, width, fillchar=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 250 #居左,类似于center(),rjust() 251 """ 252 S.ljust(width[, fillchar]) -> str 253 254 Return S left-justified in a Unicode string of length width. Padding is 255 done using the specified fill character (default is a space). 256 """ 257 return "" 258 259 def lower(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 260 #小写化,只支持ASCII码的‘A-Z’ 261 """ 262 S.lower() -> str 263 264 Return a copy of the string S converted to lowercase. 265 """ 266 return "" 267 268 def lstrip(self, chars=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 269 """ 270 S.lstrip([chars]) -> str 271 272 Return a copy of the string S with leading whitespace removed. 273 If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead. 274 """ 275 return "" 276 277 def maketrans(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 278 #做一个对应表,如'aeiou'分别对应'12345' 279 """ 280 Return a translation table usable for str.translate(). 281 282 If there is only one argument, it must be a dictionary mapping Unicode 283 ordinals (integers) or characters to Unicode ordinals, strings or None. 284 Character keys will be then converted to ordinals. 285 If there are two arguments, they must be strings of equal length, and 286 in the resulting dictionary, each character in x will be mapped to the 287 character at the same position in y. If there is a third argument, it 288 must be a string, whose characters will be mapped to None in the result. 289 """ 290 pass 291 292 def partition(self, sep): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 293 #分割,前中后三部分 294 """ 295 S.partition(sep) -> (head, sep, tail) 296 297 Search for the separator sep in S, and return the part before it, 298 the separator itself, and the part after it. If the separator is not 299 found, return S and two empty strings. 300 """ 301 pass 302 303 def replace(self, old, new, count=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 304 #替换 305 """ 306 S.replace(old, new[, count]) -> str 307 308 Return a copy of S with all occurrences of substring 309 old replaced by new. If the optional argument count is 310 given, only the first count occurrences are replaced. 311 """ 312 return "" 313 314 def rfind(self, sub, start=None, end=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 315 """ 316 S.rfind(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int 317 318 Return the highest index in S where substring sub is found, 319 such that sub is contained within S[start:end]. Optional 320 arguments start and end are interpreted as in slice notation. 321 322 Return -1 on failure. 323 """ 324 return 0 325 326 def rindex(self, sub, start=None, end=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 327 """ 328 S.rindex(sub[, start[, end]]) -> int 329 330 Like S.rfind() but raise ValueError when the substring is not found. 331 """ 332 return 0 333 334 def rjust(self, width, fillchar=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 335 """ 336 S.rjust(width[, fillchar]) -> str 337 338 Return S right-justified in a string of length width. Padding is 339 done using the specified fill character (default is a space). 340 """ 341 return "" 342 343 def rpartition(self, sep): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 344 """ 345 S.rpartition(sep) -> (head, sep, tail) 346 347 Search for the separator sep in S, starting at the end of S, and return 348 the part before it, the separator itself, and the part after it. If the 349 separator is not found, return two empty strings and S. 350 """ 351 pass 352 353 def rsplit(self, sep=None, maxsplit=-1): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 354 """ 355 S.rsplit(sep=None, maxsplit=-1) -> list of strings 356 357 Return a list of the words in S, using sep as the 358 delimiter string, starting at the end of the string and 359 working to the front. If maxsplit is given, at most maxsplit 360 splits are done. If sep is not specified, any whitespace string 361 is a separator. 362 """ 363 return [] 364 365 def rstrip(self, chars=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 366 """ 367 S.rstrip([chars]) -> str 368 369 Return a copy of the string S with trailing whitespace removed. 370 If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead. 371 """ 372 return "" 373 374 def split(self, sep=None, maxsplit=-1): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 375 #分割,默认以空格为分割符 376 """ 377 S.split(sep=None, maxsplit=-1) -> list of strings 378 379 Return a list of the words in S, using sep as the 380 delimiter string. If maxsplit is given, at most maxsplit 381 splits are done. If sep is not specified or is None, any 382 whitespace string is a separator and empty strings are 383 removed from the result. 384 """ 385 return [] 386 387 def splitlines(self, keepends=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 388 """ 389 S.splitlines([keepends]) -> list of strings 390 391 Return a list of the lines in S, breaking at line boundaries. 392 Line breaks are not included in the resulting list unless keepends 393 is given and true. 394 """ 395 return [] 396 397 def startswith(self, prefix, start=None, end=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 398 #是否以某字符开始 399 """ 400 S.startswith(prefix[, start[, end]]) -> bool 401 402 Return True if S starts with the specified prefix, False otherwise. 403 With optional start, test S beginning at that position. 404 With optional end, stop comparing S at that position. 405 prefix can also be a tuple of strings to try. 406 """ 407 return False 408 409 def strip(self, chars=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 410 #可以去掉字符串两边的字符,默认为空格 411 """ 412 S.strip([chars]) -> str 413 414 Return a copy of the string S with leading and trailing 415 whitespace removed. 416 If chars is given and not None, remove characters in chars instead. 417 """ 418 return "" 419 420 def swapcase(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 421 #大写变小写,小写变大写 422 """ 423 S.swapcase() -> str 424 425 Return a copy of S with uppercase characters converted to lowercase 426 and vice versa. 427 """ 428 return "" 429 430 def title(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 431 #以title格式打印字符串,即首字母大写,其余小写的格式 432 """ 433 S.title() -> str 434 435 Return a titlecased version of S, i.e. words start with title case 436 characters, all remaining cased characters have lower case. 437 """ 438 return "" 439 440 def translate(self, table): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 441 """ 442 S.translate(table) -> str 443 444 Return a copy of the string S in which each character has been mapped 445 through the given translation table. The table must implement 446 lookup/indexing via __getitem__, for instance a dictionary or list, 447 mapping Unicode ordinals to Unicode ordinals, strings, or None. If 448 this operation raises LookupError, the character is left untouched. 449 Characters mapped to None are deleted. 450 """ 451 return "" 452 453 def upper(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 454 """ 455 S.upper() -> str 456 457 Return a copy of S converted to uppercase. 458 """ 459 return "" 460 461 def zfill(self, width): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 462 """ 463 S.zfill(width) -> str 464 465 Pad a numeric string S with zeros on the left, to fill a field 466 of the specified width. The string S is never truncated. 467 """ 468 return "" 469 470 def __add__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 471 """ Return self+value. """ 472 pass 473 474 def __contains__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 475 """ Return key in self. """ 476 pass 477 478 def __eq__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 479 """ Return self==value. """ 480 pass 481 482 def __format__(self, format_spec): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 483 """ 484 S.__format__(format_spec) -> str 485 486 Return a formatted version of S as described by format_spec. 487 """ 488 return "" 489 490 def __getattribute__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 491 """ Return getattr(self, name). """ 492 pass 493 494 def __getitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 495 """ Return self[key]. """ 496 pass 497 498 def __getnewargs__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 499 pass 500 501 def __ge__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 502 """ Return self>=value. """ 503 pass 504 505 def __gt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 506 """ Return self>value. """ 507 pass 508 509 def __hash__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 510 """ Return hash(self). """ 511 pass 512 513 def __init__(self, value='', encoding=None, errors='strict'): # known special case of str.__init__ 514 """ 515 str(object='') -> str 516 str(bytes_or_buffer[, encoding[, errors]]) -> str 517 518 Create a new string object from the given object. If encoding or 519 errors is specified, then the object must expose a data buffer 520 that will be decoded using the given encoding and error handler. 521 Otherwise, returns the result of object.__str__() (if defined) 522 or repr(object). 523 encoding defaults to sys.getdefaultencoding(). 524 errors defaults to 'strict'. 525 # (copied from class doc) 526 """ 527 pass 528 529 def __iter__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 530 """ Implement iter(self). """ 531 pass 532 533 def __len__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 534 """ Return len(self). """ 535 pass 536 537 def __le__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 538 """ Return self<=value. """ 539 pass 540 541 def __lt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 542 """ Return self<value. """ 543 pass 544 545 def __mod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 546 """ Return self%value. """ 547 pass 548 549 def __mul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 550 """ Return self*value.n """ 551 pass 552 553 @staticmethod # known case of __new__ 554 def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 555 """ Create and return a new object. See help(type) for accurate signature. """ 556 pass 557 558 def __ne__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 559 """ Return self!=value. """ 560 pass 561 562 def __repr__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 563 """ Return repr(self). """ 564 pass 565 566 def __rmod__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 567 """ Return value%self. """ 568 pass 569 570 def __rmul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 571 """ Return self*value. """ 572 pass 573 574 def __sizeof__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 575 """ S.__sizeof__() -> size of S in memory, in bytes """ 576 pass 577 578 def __str__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 579 """ Return str(self). """ 580 pass View Code

常用的功能代码示例:

管家婆赢钱一句话 24 1 # _format__()功能在python3中不能使用 2 3 ''' 4 # capitalize()首字母大写化 5 name = 'chenghaoqi is a boy!' 6 result = name.capitalize() #字符串不可修改 7 print (result) 8 9 10 # casefold()小写化 11 name = 'Teacher iS very tirEd' 12 result = name.casefold() 13 print(result) 14 15 16 # center()居中 17 name = 'XS' 18 result = name.center(21,'*') 19 print(result) 20 21 22 # count()统计字符串内子串出现次数,可指定范围 23 name = 'Teacher iS very tirEd' 24 result = name.count('r',7,18) 25 print(result) 26 27 28 # endswith()判断指定范围字符串是否以某个字符串或子串结尾 29 name = 'Teacher iS very tirEd' 30 result = name.endswith('d') 31 print(result) 32 33 34 # expandtabs()把tab转换成空格,默认一个tab8个空格 35 name = 'Teachertvery' 36 result = name.expandtabs() 37 print(result) #未执行成功!!! 38 39 40 # find()定位子串在字符串中第一次出现的位置,无则返回-1 41 # 同index()类似,但index()中无结果则报错,而非返回-1 42 name = 'Teacher iS very tirEd' 43 result = name.find('r',7,20) 44 print(result) 45 46 47 # index()定位子串在字符串中第一次出现的位置,无则报错 48 49 # format()字符串格式化 50 name = 'Teacher iS {0} {1}' 51 result = name.format('very','tired') 52 print(result) 53 54 name = 'Teacher iS {name} {status}' 55 result = name.format(name='very',status='tired') 56 print(result) 57 58 59 # join()拼接字符串,将字符串连接起来 60 name = ['a','e','i','o','u'] 61 result = ''.join(name) 62 print(result) 63 64 65 # ljust()居左,类似于center(),rjust() 66 name = 'XS' 67 result = name.ljust(21,'*') 68 print(result) 69 70 # partition()分割,前中后三部分 71 name = 'Teacher iS very tirEd' 72 result = name.partition('very') 73 print(result) 74 75 # replace()替换 76 name = 'Teacher iS very tirEd' 77 result = name.replace('very','no') 78 print(result) 79 80 #split()分割,默认以空格为分割符 81 name = 'Teacher iS very tirEd' 82 result = name.split() 83 result = name.split('r',2) 84 85 #strip() 可以去掉字符串两边的字符,默认为空格 86 name = ' Teacher iS very tirEd ' 87 result = name.split() 88 print(result) 89 name = 'Teacher iS very tirEd' 90 name.strip('T') 91 print(result) 92 93 # swapcase()大写变小写,小写变大写 94 95 name = 'Teacher iS very tirEd' 96 result = name.swapcase() 97 print(result) 98 99 ''' View Code

list内部功能

如:

1 >>> lst = list([123,456,789,'kkk'])
2 >>> lst
3 [123, 456, 789, 'kkk']

 

管家婆赢钱一句话 25 1 class list(object): 2 """ 3 list() -> new empty list 4 list(iterable) -> new list initialized from iterable's items 5 """ 6 def append(self, p_object): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 7 """ L.append(object) -> None -- append object to end """ 8 pass 9 10 def clear(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 11 """ L.clear() -> None -- remove all items from L """ 12 pass 13 14 def copy(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 15 #浅拷贝 16 """ L.copy() -> list -- a shallow copy of L """ 17 return [] 18 19 def count(self, value): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 20 """ L.count(value) -> integer -- return number of occurrences of value """ 21 return 0 22 23 def extend(self, iterable): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 24 """ L.extend(iterable) -> None -- extend list by appending elements from the iterable """ 25 pass 26 27 def index(self, value, start=None, stop=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 28 """ 29 L.index(value, [start, [stop]]) -> integer -- return first index of value. 30 Raises ValueError if the value is not present. 31 """ 32 return 0 33 34 def insert(self, index, p_object): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 35 """ L.insert(index, object) -- insert object before index """ 36 pass 37 38 def pop(self, index=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 39 """ 40 L.pop([index]) -> item -- remove and return item at index (default last). 41 Raises IndexError if list is empty or index is out of range. 42 """ 43 pass 44 45 def remove(self, value): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 46 """ 47 L.remove(value) -> None -- remove first occurrence of value. 48 Raises ValueError if the value is not present. 49 """ 50 pass 51 52 def reverse(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 53 """ L.reverse() -- reverse *IN PLACE* """ 54 pass 55 56 def sort(self, key=None, reverse=False): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 57 """ L.sort(key=None, reverse=False) -> None -- stable sort *IN PLACE* """ 58 pass 59 60 def __add__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 61 """ Return self+value. """ 62 pass 63 64 def __contains__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 65 """ Return key in self. """ 66 pass 67 68 def __delitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 69 """ Delete self[key]. """ 70 pass 71 72 def __eq__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 73 """ Return self==value. """ 74 pass 75 76 def __getattribute__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 77 """ Return getattr(self, name). """ 78 pass 79 80 def __getitem__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 81 """ x.__getitem__(y) <==> x[y] """ 82 pass 83 84 def __ge__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 85 """ Return self>=value. """ 86 pass 87 88 def __gt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 89 """ Return self>value. """ 90 pass 91 92 def __iadd__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 93 """ Implement self+=value. """ 94 pass 95 96 def __imul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 97 """ Implement self*=value. """ 98 pass 99 100 def __init__(self, seq=()): # known special case of list.__init__ 101 """ 102 list() -> new empty list 103 list(iterable) -> new list initialized from iterable's items 104 # (copied from class doc) 105 """ 106 pass 107 108 def __iter__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 109 """ Implement iter(self). """ 110 pass 111 112 def __len__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 113 """ Return len(self). """ 114 pass 115 116 def __le__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 117 """ Return self<=value. """ 118 pass 119 120 def __lt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 121 """ Return self<value. """ 122 pass 123 124 def __mul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 125 """ Return self*value.n """ 126 pass 127 128 @staticmethod # known case of __new__ 129 def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 130 """ Create and return a new object. See help(type) for accurate signature. """ 131 pass 132 133 def __ne__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 134 """ Return self!=value. """ 135 pass 136 137 def __repr__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 138 """ Return repr(self). """ 139 pass 140 141 def __reversed__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 142 """ L.__reversed__() -- return a reverse iterator over the list """ 143 pass 144 145 def __rmul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 146 """ Return self*value. """ 147 pass 148 149 def __setitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 150 """ Set self[key] to value. """ 151 pass 152 153 def __sizeof__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 154 """ L.__sizeof__() -- size of L in memory, in bytes """ 155 pass 156 157 __hash__ = None View Code

常用的功能代码示例:

管家婆赢钱一句话 26 1 >>> lst = list([123,456,789]) 2 >>> lst.append('jack') 3 >>> lst 4 [123, 456, 789, 'jack'] 5 >>> lst.extend([0,'tom']) 6 >>> lst 7 [123, 456, 789, 'jack', 0, 'tom'] 8 >>> lst.insert(2,'gg') 9 >>> lst 10 [123, 456, 'gg', 789, 'jack', 0, 'tom'] 11 >>> lst.count('gg') 12 1 13 >>> lst.pop() 14 'tom' 15 >>> lst 16 [123, 456, 'gg', 789, 'jack', 0] 17 >>> lst.pop(1) 18 456 19 >>> lst 20 [123, 'gg', 789, 'jack', 0] 21 >>> lst.remove('gg') 22 >>> lst.remove('jack') 23 >>> lst 24 [123, 789, 0] 25 >>> lst.sort() 26 >>> lst 27 [0, 123, 789] 28 >>> lst.sort(reverse = True) 29 >>> lst 30 [789, 123, 0] 31 >>> lst.reverse() 32 >>> lst 33 [0, 123, 789] View Code

tuple内部功能

如:

1 >>> tup = tuple((222,333,444,'ggg'))
2 >>> tup
3 (222, 333, 444, 'ggg')

 

元组tuple与列表list的最大的区别在于,元组不可修改,而列表是可以修改的。所以元组的内部功能较少。

管家婆赢钱一句话 27 1 class tuple(object): 2 """ 3 tuple() -> empty tuple 4 tuple(iterable) -> tuple initialized from iterable's items 5 6 If the argument is a tuple, the return value is the same object. 7 """ 8 def count(self, value): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 9 """ T.count(value) -> integer -- return number of occurrences of value """ 10 return 0 11 12 def index(self, value, start=None, stop=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 13 """ 14 T.index(value, [start, [stop]]) -> integer -- return first index of value. 15 Raises ValueError if the value is not present. 16 """ 17 return 0 View Code

注:

管家婆赢钱一句话 28

dict内部功能

字典是一种无序的序列。

特点:

如:

1 >>> dct = dict({'k1':'jack','k2':12,'k3':'male'})
2 >>> dct
3 {'k2': 12, 'k1': 'jack', 'k3': 'male'}

管家婆赢钱一句话 29 1 class dict(object): 2 """ 3 dict() -> new empty dictionary 4 dict(mapping) -> new dictionary initialized from a mapping object's 5 (key, value) pairs 6 dict(iterable) -> new dictionary initialized as if via: 7 d = {} 8 for k, v in iterable: 9 d[k] = v 10 dict(**kwargs) -> new dictionary initialized with the name=value pairs 11 in the keyword argument list. For example: dict(one=1, two=2) 12 """ 13 def clear(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 14 """ D.clear() -> None. Remove all items from D. """ 15 pass 16 17 def copy(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 18 #浅拷贝 19 """ D.copy() -> a shallow copy of D """ 20 pass 21 22 @staticmethod # known case 23 def fromkeys(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 24 """ Returns a new dict with keys from iterable and values equal to value. """ 25 pass 26 27 def get(self, k, d=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 28 #根据key获取value 29 """ D.get(k[,d]) -> D[k] if k in D, else d. d defaults to None. """ 30 pass 31 32 def items(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 33 #返回一个有(key,value)组成的元组 34 """ D.items() -> a set-like object providing a view on D's items """ 35 pass 36 37 def keys(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 38 #返回一个包含所有key的列表 39 """ D.keys() -> a set-like object providing a view on D's keys """ 40 pass 41 42 def pop(self, k, d=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 43 #弹出一个关键字key,并返回它的值value 44 """ 45 D.pop(k[,d]) -> v, remove specified key and return the corresponding value. 46 If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError is raised 47 """ 48 pass 49 50 def popitem(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 51 """ 52 D.popitem() -> (k, v), remove and return some (key, value) pair as a 53 2-tuple; but raise KeyError if D is empty. 54 """ 55 pass 56 57 def setdefault(self, k, d=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 58 """ D.setdefault(k[,d]) -> D.get(k,d), also set D[k]=d if k not in D """ 59 pass 60 61 def update(self, E=None, **F): # known special case of dict.update 62 """ 63 D.update([E, ]**F) -> None. Update D from dict/iterable E and F. 64 If E is present and has a .keys() method, then does: for k in E: D[k] = E[k] 65 If E is present and lacks a .keys() method, then does: for k, v in E: D[k] = v 66 In either case, this is followed by: for k in F: D[k] = F[k] 67 """ 68 pass 69 70 def values(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 71 #返回一个包含所有value的列表 72 """ D.values() -> an object providing a view on D's values """ 73 pass 74 75 def __contains__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 76 """ True if D has a key k, else False. """ 77 pass 78 79 def __delitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 80 """ Delete self[key]. """ 81 pass 82 83 def __eq__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 84 """ Return self==value. """ 85 pass 86 87 def __getattribute__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 88 """ Return getattr(self, name). """ 89 pass 90 91 def __getitem__(self, y): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 92 """ x.__getitem__(y) <==> x[y] """ 93 pass 94 95 def __ge__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 96 """ Return self>=value. """ 97 pass 98 99 def __gt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 100 """ Return self>value. """ 101 pass 102 103 def __init__(self, seq=None, **kwargs): # known special case of dict.__init__ 104 """ 105 dict() -> new empty dictionary 106 dict(mapping) -> new dictionary initialized from a mapping object's 107 (key, value) pairs 108 dict(iterable) -> new dictionary initialized as if via: 109 d = {} 110 for k, v in iterable: 111 d[k] = v 112 dict(**kwargs) -> new dictionary initialized with the name=value pairs 113 in the keyword argument list. For example: dict(one=1, two=2) 114 # (copied from class doc) 115 """ 116 pass 117 118 def __iter__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 119 """ Implement iter(self). """ 120 pass 121 122 def __len__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 123 """ Return len(self). """ 124 pass 125 126 def __le__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 127 """ Return self<=value. """ 128 pass 129 130 def __lt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 131 """ Return self<value. """ 132 pass 133 134 @staticmethod # known case of __new__ 135 def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 136 """ Create and return a new object. See help(type) for accurate signature. """ 137 pass 138 139 def __ne__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 140 """ Return self!=value. """ 141 pass 142 143 def __repr__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 144 """ Return repr(self). """ 145 pass 146 147 def __setitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 148 """ Set self[key] to value. """ 149 pass 150 151 def __sizeof__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 152 """ D.__sizeof__() -> size of D in memory, in bytes """ 153 pass 154 155 __hash__ = None View Code

 常用的功能代码示例:

管家婆赢钱一句话 30 1 >>> dct = dict({'k1':'jack','k2':12,'k3':'male'}) 2 >>> dct 3 {'k2': 12, 'k1': 'jack', 'k3': 'male'} 4 >>> dct.clear() 5 >>> dct 6 {} 7 >>> dct = dict({'k1':'jack','k2':12,'k3':'male'}) 8 >>> dct.get('k2') 9 12 10 >>> dct.items() 11 dict_items([('k2', 12), ('k1', 'jack'), ('k3', 'male')]) 12 >>> dct.keys() 13 dict_keys(['k2', 'k1', 'k3']) 14 >>> dct.values() 15 dict_values([12, 'jack', 'male']) 16 >>> dct.pop('k3') 17 'male' 18 >>> dct.popitem() 19 ('k2', 12) 20 >>> dct 21 {'k1': 'jack'} 22 >>> dct['k2'] = 12 23 >>> dct 24 {'k2': 12, 'k1': 'jack'} 25 >>> len(dct) 26 2 View Code

 set内部功能

集合set()是一个无序且不重合的元素(‘键‘,key)集合,类似于字典,但是没有’值‘,value。

如:

 1 >>> x = set(['a','b','c'])
 2 >>> x
 3 {'b', 'c', 'a'}
 4 >>> type(x)
 5 <class 'set'>
 6 >>> y = {'aa','bb','cc'}
 7 >>> y
 8 {'aa', 'cc', 'bb'}
 9 >>> type(y)
10 <class 'set'>

管家婆赢钱一句话 31 1 class set(object): 2 """ 3 set() -> new empty set object 4 set(iterable) -> new set object 5 6 Build an unordered collection of unique elements. 7 """ 8 def add(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 9 #添加 10 """ 11 Add an element to a set. 12 13 This has no effect if the element is already present. 14 """ 15 pass 16 17 def clear(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 18 """ Remove all elements from this set. """ 19 pass 20 21 def copy(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 22 """ Return a shallow copy of a set. """ 23 pass 24 25 def difference(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 26 #求差集,返回的是old set中的差值元素 27 """ 28 Return the difference of two or more sets as a new set. 29 30 (i.e. all elements that are in this set but not the others.) 31 """ 32 pass 33 34 def difference_update(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 35 #删除当前set中的所有包含在 new set 里的元素 36 """ Remove all elements of another set from this set. """ 37 pass 38 39 def discard(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 40 """ 41 Remove an element from a set if it is a member. 42 43 If the element is not a member, do nothing. 44 """ 45 pass 46 47 def intersection(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 48 #取交集,新创建一个set 49 """ 50 Return the intersection of two sets as a new set. 51 52 (i.e. all elements that are in both sets.) 53 """ 54 pass 55 56 def intersection_update(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 57 #取交集,修改原来set 58 """ Update a set with the intersection of itself and another. """ 59 pass 60 61 def isdisjoint(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 62 """ Return True if two sets have a null intersection. """ 63 pass 64 65 def issubset(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 66 """ Report whether another set contains this set. """ 67 pass 68 69 def issuperset(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 70 """ Report whether this set contains another set. """ 71 pass 72 73 def pop(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 74 """ 75 Remove and return an arbitrary set element. 76 Raises KeyError if the set is empty. 77 """ 78 pass 79 80 def remove(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 81 """ 82 Remove an element from a set; it must be a member. 83 84 If the element is not a member, raise a KeyError. 85 """ 86 pass 87 88 def symmetric_difference(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 89 #对称差集,也就是两边差值元素都会取到,创建新对象 90 """ 91 Return the symmetric difference of two sets as a new set. 92 93 (i.e. all elements that are in exactly one of the sets.) 94 """ 95 pass 96 97 def symmetric_difference_update(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 98 #对称差集,也就是两边差值元素都会取到,但只是改变原来对象 99 """ Update a set with the symmetric difference of itself and another. """ 100 pass 101 102 def union(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 103 #并集 104 """ 105 Return the union of sets as a new set. 106 107 (i.e. all elements that are in either set.) 108 """ 109 pass 110 111 def update(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 112 """ Update a set with the union of itself and others. """ 113 pass View Code

常见功能代码示例:

管家婆赢钱一句话 32 1 >>> x = {'a','b','c','d'} 2 >>> y = {'a','c','11','22'} 3 >>> x.difference_update(y) 4 >>> x 5 {'d', 'b'} 6 >>> x = {'a','b','c','d'} 7 >>> y = {'a','c','11','22'} 8 >>> z = x.intersection(y) 9 >>> z 10 {'c', 'a'} 11 >>> x.intersection_update(y) 12 >>> x 13 {'c', 'a'} 14 >>> x = {'a','b','c','d'} 15 >>> y = {'a','c','11','22'} 16 >>> z = x.symmetric_difference(y) 17 >>> z 18 {'11', 'b', '22', 'd'} 19 >>> x.symmetric_difference_update(y) 20 >>> x 21 {'d', '22', '11', 'b'} View Code

下面是一个集合set()实际应用的例子:

管家婆赢钱一句话 33 1 # 数据库中原有 2 old_dict = { 3 "#1": {'hostname': 'c1', 'cpu_count': 2, 'mem_capicity': 80}, 4 "#2": {'hostname': 'c1', 'cpu_count': 2, 'mem_capicity': 80}, 5 "#3": {'hostname': 'c1', 'cpu_count': 2, 'mem_capicity': 80} 6 } 7 8 # cmdb 新汇报的数据 9 new_dict = { 10 "#1": {'hostname': 'c1', 'cpu_count': 2, 'mem_capicity': 800}, 11 "#3": {'hostname': 'c1', 'cpu_count': 2, 'mem_capicity': 80}, 12 "#4": {'hostname': 'c2', 'cpu_count': 2, 'mem_capicity': 80} 13 } 14 15 ''' 16 需要删除:? 17 需要新建:? 18 需要更新:? 注意:无需考虑内部元素是否改变,只要原来存在,新汇报也存在,就是需要更新 19 20 ''' 21 22 # 根据key值来判断; 23 # old,new两者交集,表示这部分内容需要保持不变,或者更新 24 # old,new两者差集,表示这部分old内容需要删除 25 # 注意!这里不用symmetric_difference()方法,而用difference()方法 26 # new,old两者差集,表示需要添加这部分new内容 27 28 29 old_keylst = old_dict.keys() 30 new_keylst = new_dict.keys() 31 32 old_keyset = set(old_keylst) 33 new_keyset = set(new_keylst) 34 35 need_update_or_reserve = old_keyset.intersection(new_keyset) 36 need_del = old_keyset.difference(new_keyset) 37 need_add = new_keyset.difference(old_keyset) 38 39 print('need update or reserve:%snneed delete:%snneed add:%s'%(need_update_or_reserve,need_del,need_add)) View Code

 

 

collections模块

计数器Counter

计数器Counter是对字典的补充,继承了字典的类。除了计数器Counter自己的内部功能外,也能使用字典的内部功能。

如:

1 >>> import collections
2 >>> obj = collections.Counter('dasdasdasfsafassadas')
3 >>> print(obj)
4 Counter({'a': 7, 's': 7, 'd': 4, 'f': 2})

计数器Couter内部功能:

管家婆赢钱一句话 34 1 class Counter(dict): 2 '''Dict subclass for counting hashable items. Sometimes called a bag 3 or multiset. Elements are stored as dictionary keys and their counts 4 are stored as dictionary values. 5 6 >>> c = Counter('abcdeabcdabcaba') # count elements from a string 7 8 >>> c.most_common(3) # three most common elements 9 [('a', 5), ('b', 4), ('c', 3)] 10 >>> sorted(c) # list all unique elements 11 ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e'] 12 >>> ''.join(sorted(c.elements())) # list elements with repetitions 13 'aaaaabbbbcccdde' 14 >>> sum(c.values()) # total of all counts 15 15 16 17 >>> c['a'] # count of letter 'a' 18 5 19 >>> for elem in 'shazam': # update counts from an iterable 20 ... c[elem] += 1 # by adding 1 to each element's count 21 >>> c['a'] # now there are seven 'a' 22 7 23 >>> del c['b'] # remove all 'b' 24 >>> c['b'] # now there are zero 'b' 25 0 26 27 >>> d = Counter('simsalabim') # make another counter 28 >>> c.update(d) # add in the second counter 29 >>> c['a'] # now there are nine 'a' 30 9 31 32 >>> c.clear() # empty the counter 33 >>> c 34 Counter() 35 36 Note: If a count is set to zero or reduced to zero, it will remain 37 in the counter until the entry is deleted or the counter is cleared: 38 39 >>> c = Counter('aaabbc') 40 >>> c['b'] -= 2 # reduce the count of 'b' by two 41 >>> c.most_common() # 'b' is still in, but its count is zero 42 [('a', 3), ('c', 1), ('b', 0)] 43 44 ''' 45 # References: 46 # 47 # 48 # 49 # 50 # Knuth, TAOCP Vol. II section 4.6.3 51 52 def __init__(*args, **kwds): 53 '''Create a new, empty Counter object. And if given, count elements 54 from an input iterable. Or, initialize the count from another mapping 55 of elements to their counts. 56 57 >>> c = Counter() # a new, empty counter 58 >>> c = Counter('gallahad') # a new counter from an iterable 59 >>> c = Counter({'a': 4, 'b': 2}) # a new counter from a mapping 60 >>> c = Counter(a=4, b=2) # a new counter from keyword args 61 62 ''' 63 if not args: 64 raise TypeError("descriptor '__init__' of 'Counter' object " 65 "needs an argument") 66 self, *args = args 67 if len(args) > 1: 68 raise TypeError('expected at most 1 arguments, got %d' % len(args)) 69 super(Counter, self).__init__() 70 self.update(*args, **kwds) 71 72 def __missing__(self, key): 73 'The count of elements not in the Counter is zero.' 74 # Needed so that self[missing_item] does not raise KeyError 75 return 0 76 77 def most_common(self, n=None): 78 #返回计数次数较多的n组元素(key,count_value)组成的列表 79 '''List the n most common elements and their counts from the most 80 common to the least. If n is None, then list all element counts. 81 82 >>> Counter('abcdeabcdabcaba').most_common(3) 83 [('a', 5), ('b', 4), ('c', 3)] 84 85 ''' 86 # Emulate Bag.sortedByCount from Smalltalk 87 if n is None: 88 return sorted(self.items(), key=_itemgetter(1), reverse=True) 89 return _heapq.nlargest(n, self.items(), key=_itemgetter(1)) 90 91 def elements(self): 92 #计数器中的所有元素,列表形式 93 #注:此处非所有元素集合,而是包含所有元素集合的迭代器 94 '''Iterator over elements repeating each as many times as its count. 95 96 >>> c = Counter('ABCABC') 97 >>> sorted(c.elements()) 98 ['A', 'A', 'B', 'B', 'C', 'C'] 99 100 # Knuth's example for prime factors of 1836: 2**2 * 3**3 * 17**1 101 >>> prime_factors = Counter({2: 2, 3: 3, 17: 1}) 102 >>> product = 1 103 >>> for factor in prime_factors.elements(): # loop over factors 104 ... product *= factor # and multiply them 105 >>> product 106 1836 107 108 Note, if an element's count has been set to zero or is a negative 109 number, elements() will ignore it. 110 111 ''' 112 # Emulate Bag.do from Smalltalk and Multiset.begin from C++. 113 return _chain.from_iterable(_starmap(_repeat, self.items())) 114 115 # Override dict methods where necessary 116 117 @classmethod 118 def fromkeys(cls, iterable, v=None): 119 # There is no equivalent method for counters because setting v=1 120 # means that no element can have a count greater than one. 121 raise NotImplementedError( 122 'Counter.fromkeys() is undefined. Use Counter(iterable) instead.') 123 124 def update(*args, **kwds): 125 #更新计数器,其实就是增加;如果原来没有,则新建,如果有则加一 126 '''Like dict.update() but add counts instead of replacing them. 127 128 Source can be an iterable, a dictionary, or another Counter instance. 129 130 >>> c = Counter('which') 131 >>> c.update('witch') # add elements from another iterable 132 >>> d = Counter('watch') 133 >>> c.update(d) # add elements from another counter 134 >>> c['h'] # four 'h' in which, witch, and watch 135 4 136 137 ''' 138 # The regular dict.update() operation makes no sense here because the 139 # replace behavior results in the some of original untouched counts 140 # being mixed-in with all of the other counts for a mismash that 141 # doesn't have a straight-forward interpretation in most counting 142 # contexts. Instead, we implement straight-addition. Both the inputs 143 # and outputs are allowed to contain zero and negative counts. 144 145 if not args: 146 raise TypeError("descriptor 'update' of 'Counter' object " 147 "needs an argument") 148 self, *args = args 149 if len(args) > 1: 150 raise TypeError('expected at most 1 arguments, got %d' % len(args)) 151 iterable = args[0] if args else None 152 if iterable is not None: 153 if isinstance(iterable, Mapping): 154 if self: 155 self_get = self.get 156 for elem, count in iterable.items(): 157 self[elem] = count + self_get(elem, 0) 158 else: 159 super(Counter, self).update(iterable) # fast path when counter is empty 160 else: 161 _count_elements(self, iterable) 162 if kwds: 163 self.update(kwds) 164 165 def subtract(*args, **kwds): 166 #相减,原来的计数器中的每一个元素的数量减去后添加的元素的数量 167 '''Like dict.update() but subtracts counts instead of replacing them. 168 Counts can be reduced below zero. Both the inputs and outputs are 169 allowed to contain zero and negative counts. 170 171 Source can be an iterable, a dictionary, or another Counter instance. 172 173 >>> c = Counter('which') 174 >>> c.subtract('witch') # subtract elements from another iterable 175 >>> c.subtract(Counter('watch')) # subtract elements from another counter 176 >>> c['h'] # 2 in which, minus 1 in witch, minus 1 in watch 177 0 178 >>> c['w'] # 1 in which, minus 1 in witch, minus 1 in watch 179 -1 180 181 ''' 182 if not args: 183 raise TypeError("descriptor 'subtract' of 'Counter' object " 184 "needs an argument") 185 self, *args = args 186 if len(args) > 1: 187 raise TypeError('expected at most 1 arguments, got %d' % len(args)) 188 iterable = args[0] if args else None 189 if iterable is not None: 190 self_get = self.get 191 if isinstance(iterable, Mapping): 192 for elem, count in iterable.items(): 193 self[elem] = self_get(elem, 0) - count 194 else: 195 for elem in iterable: 196 self[elem] = self_get(elem, 0) - 1 197 if kwds: 198 self.subtract(kwds) 199 200 def copy(self): 201 'Return a shallow copy.' 202 return self.__class__(self) View Code

常用功能示例代码:

管家婆赢钱一句话 35 1 import collections 2 3 # Counter计数器: 4 5 # x = collections.Counter('aabbdfkasd') 6 x = collections.Counter([11,22,33,44,11,33,11]) 7 print(x) 8 9 10 ''' 11 y = x.most_common(4) 12 print(y) 13 14 for i in x.elements(): 15 print(i) 16 17 #Counter继承了字典的类,字典的功能Counter也能用 18 for key,values in x.items(): 19 print(key,values) 20 21 22 #添加和删除 23 # x.update([11,11,22,'flexion']) 24 # x.subtract([11,11,22,'flexion']) 25 26 print(x) 27 ''' View Code

有序字典OrderDict

字典dict是无序的序列,而列表list是有序的序列,两者结合就形成了有序字典OrderDict,类似于:

1 for key in list:
2     print( dict[ key ] )

有序字典OrderDict是对字典dict类型的补充,他记住了字典元素添加的顺序。有序字典OrderDict的功能很多与字典dict相似:

管家婆赢钱一句话 36 1 class OrderedDict(dict): 2 'Dictionary that remembers insertion order' 3 # An inherited dict maps keys to values. 4 # The inherited dict provides __getitem__, __len__, __contains__, and get. 5 # The remaining methods are order-aware. 6 # Big-O running times for all methods are the same as regular dictionaries. 7 8 # The internal self.__map dict maps keys to links in a doubly linked list. 9 # The circular doubly linked list starts and ends with a sentinel element. 10 # The sentinel element never gets deleted (this simplifies the algorithm). 11 # The sentinel is in self.__hardroot with a weakref proxy in self.__root. 12 # The prev links are weakref proxies (to prevent circular references). 13 # Individual links are kept alive by the hard reference in self.__map. 14 # Those hard references disappear when a key is deleted from an OrderedDict. 15 16 def __init__(*args, **kwds): 17 '''Initialize an ordered dictionary. The signature is the same as 18 regular dictionaries, but keyword arguments are not recommended because 19 their insertion order is arbitrary. 20 21 ''' 22 if not args: 23 raise TypeError("descriptor '__init__' of 'OrderedDict' object " 24 "needs an argument") 25 self, *args = args 26 if len(args) > 1: 27 raise TypeError('expected at most 1 arguments, got %d' % len(args)) 28 try: 29 self.__root 30 except AttributeError: 31 self.__hardroot = _Link() 32 self.__root = root = _proxy(self.__hardroot) 33 root.prev = root.next = root 34 self.__map = {} 35 self.__update(*args, **kwds) 36 37 def __setitem__(self, key, value, 38 dict_setitem=dict.__setitem__, proxy=_proxy, Link=_Link): 39 'od.__setitem__(i, y) <==> od[i]=y' 40 # Setting a new item creates a new link at the end of the linked list, 41 # and the inherited dictionary is updated with the new key/value pair. 42 if key not in self: 43 self.__map[key] = link = Link() 44 root = self.__root 45 last = root.prev 46 link.prev, link.next, link.key = last, root, key 47 last.next = link 48 root.prev = proxy(link) 49 dict_setitem(self, key, value) 50 51 def __delitem__(self, key, dict_delitem=dict.__delitem__): 52 'od.__delitem__(y) <==> del od[y]' 53 # Deleting an existing item uses self.__map to find the link which gets 54 # removed by updating the links in the predecessor and successor nodes. 55 dict_delitem(self, key) 56 link = self.__map.pop(key) 57 link_prev = link.prev 58 link_next = link.next 59 link_prev.next = link_next 60 link_next.prev = link_prev 61 link.prev = None 62 link.next = None 63 64 def __iter__(self): 65 'od.__iter__() <==> iter(od)' 66 # Traverse the linked list in order. 67 root = self.__root 68 curr = root.next 69 while curr is not root: 70 yield curr.key 71 curr = curr.next 72 73 def __reversed__(self): 74 'od.__reversed__() <==> reversed(od)' 75 # Traverse the linked list in reverse order. 76 root = self.__root 77 curr = root.prev 78 while curr is not root: 79 yield curr.key 80 curr = curr.prev 81 82 def clear(self): 83 'od.clear() -> None. Remove all items from od.' 84 root = self.__root 85 root.prev = root.next = root 86 self.__map.clear() 87 dict.clear(self) 88 89 def popitem(self, last=True): 90 '''od.popitem() -> (k, v), return and remove a (key, value) pair. 91 Pairs are returned in LIFO order if last is true or FIFO order if false. 92 93 ''' 94 if not self: 95 raise KeyError('dictionary is empty') 96 root = self.__root 97 if last: 98 link = root.prev 99 link_prev = link.prev 100 link_prev.next = root 101 root.prev = link_prev 102 else: 103 link = root.next 104 link_next = link.next 105 root.next = link_next 106 link_next.prev = root 107 key = link.key 108 del self.__map[key] 109 value = dict.pop(self, key) 110 return key, value 111 112 def move_to_end(self, key, last=True): 113 '''Move an existing element to the end (or beginning if last==False). 114 115 Raises KeyError if the element does not exist. 116 When last=True, acts like a fast version of self[key]=self.pop(key). 117 118 ''' 119 link = self.__map[key] 120 link_prev = link.prev 121 link_next = link.next 122 link_prev.next = link_next 123 link_next.prev = link_prev 124 root = self.__root 125 if last: 126 last = root.prev 127 link.prev = last 128 link.next = root 129 last.next = root.prev = link 130 else: 131 first = root.next 132 link.prev = root 133 link.next = first 134 root.next = first.prev = link 135 136 def __sizeof__(self): 137 sizeof = _sys.getsizeof 138 n = len(self) + 1 # number of links including root 139 size = sizeof(self.__dict__) # instance dictionary 140 size += sizeof(self.__map) * 2 # internal dict and inherited dict 141 size += sizeof(self.__hardroot) * n # link objects 142 size += sizeof(self.__root) * n # proxy objects 143 return size 144 145 update = __update = MutableMapping.update 146 147 def keys(self): 148 "D.keys() -> a set-like object providing a view on D's keys" 149 return _OrderedDictKeysView(self) 150 151 def items(self): 152 "D.items() -> a set-like object providing a view on D's items" 153 return _OrderedDictItemsView(self) 154 155 def values(self): 156 "D.values() -> an object providing a view on D's values" 157 return _OrderedDictValuesView(self) 158 159 __ne__ = MutableMapping.__ne__ 160 161 __marker = object() 162 163 def pop(self, key, default=__marker): 164 '''od.pop(k[,d]) -> v, remove specified key and return the corresponding 165 value. If key is not found, d is returned if given, otherwise KeyError 166 is raised. 167 168 ''' 169 if key in self: 170 result = self[key] 171 del self[key] 172 return result 173 if default is self.__marker: 174 raise KeyError(key) 175 return default 176 177 def setdefault(self, key, default=None): 178 'od.setdefault(k[,d]) -> od.get(k,d), also set od[k]=d if k not in od' 179 if key in self: 180 return self[key] 181 self[key] = default 182 return default 183 184 @_recursive_repr() 185 def __repr__(self): 186 'od.__repr__() <==> repr(od)' 187 if not self: 188 return '%s()' % (self.__class__.__name__,) 189 return '%s(%r)' % (self.__class__.__name__, list(self.items())) 190 191 def __reduce__(self): 192 'Return state information for pickling' 193 inst_dict = vars(self).copy() 194 for k in vars(OrderedDict()): 195 inst_dict.pop(k, None) 196 return self.__class__, (), inst_dict or None, None, iter(self.items()) 197 198 def copy(self): 199 'od.copy() -> a shallow copy of od' 200 return self.__class__(self) 201 202 @classmethod 203 def fromkeys(cls, iterable, value=None): 204 '''OD.fromkeys(S[, v]) -> New ordered dictionary with keys from S. 205 If not specified, the value defaults to None. 206 207 ''' 208 self = cls() 209 for key in iterable: 210 self[key] = value 211 return self 212 213 def __eq__(self, other): 214 '''od.__eq__(y) <==> od==y. Comparison to another OD is order-sensitive 215 while comparison to a regular mapping is order-insensitive. 216 217 ''' 218 if isinstance(other, OrderedDict): 219 return dict.__eq__(self, other) and all(map(_eq, self, other)) 220 return dict.__eq__(self, other) View Code

常用功能示例代码:

管家婆赢钱一句话 37 1 import collections 2 # OrderedDict有序字典 3 4 dic = collections.OrderedDict() 5 dic['k1'] = 'v1' 6 dic['k2'] = 'v2' 7 dic['k3'] = 'v3' 8 9 print(dic) 10 11 # move_to_end() 12 dic.move_to_end('k1') 13 print(dic) 14 15 ret = dic.popitem() 16 print(dic,ret) #这个栈是先进先出,同时这里popitem()返回的是item 17 18 ret = dic.pop('k2') 19 print(dic,ret) #这里pop()返回的是对应的value View Code

默认字典defaultdict

默认字典defaultdict是对字典的类型的补充,他默认给字典的值value设置了一个类型。

1 >>> dic = collections.defaultdict(list)
2 >>> dic['k1'].append('Tom')
3 >>> dic
4 defaultdict(<class 'list'>, {'k1': ['Tom']})

可命名元组namedtuple

在模块collections中并未对namedtuple提供类属型,故使用前应先创建一个类:

1 #可命名元组namedtuple(),python中并未对其提供具体的类属性,故使用前应先创建一个类
2 MytupleClass = collections.namedtuple('MytupleClass',['x','y','z'])
3 #上述语句,创建了一个名为MytupleClass的类
4 obj = MytupleClass(11,22,33)
5 print(obj.x)
6 print(obj.y)
7 print(obj.z)
8 
9 # print(help(MytupleClass)) #查看新创建的这个类MytupleClass的function

可命名元组namedtuple继承了元组tuple的类,亦不可修改!

双向队列deque

双向队列deque:

管家婆赢钱一句话 38 1 class deque(object): 2 """ 3 deque([iterable[, maxlen]]) --> deque object 4 5 A list-like sequence optimized for data accesses near its endpoints. 6 """ 7 def append(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 8 """ Add an element to the right side of the deque. """ 9 pass 10 11 def appendleft(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 12 """ Add an element to the left side of the deque. """ 13 pass 14 15 def clear(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 16 """ Remove all elements from the deque. """ 17 pass 18 19 def copy(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 20 """ Return a shallow copy of a deque. """ 21 pass 22 23 def count(self, value): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 24 """ D.count(value) -> integer -- return number of occurrences of value """ 25 return 0 26 27 def extend(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 28 """ Extend the right side of the deque with elements from the iterable """ 29 pass 30 31 def extendleft(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 32 """ Extend the left side of the deque with elements from the iterable """ 33 pass 34 35 def index(self, value, start=None, stop=None): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 36 """ 37 D.index(value, [start, [stop]]) -> integer -- return first index of value. 38 Raises ValueError if the value is not present. 39 """ 40 return 0 41 42 def insert(self, index, p_object): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 43 """ D.insert(index, object) -- insert object before index """ 44 pass 45 46 def pop(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 47 """ Remove and return the rightmost element. """ 48 pass 49 50 def popleft(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 51 """ Remove and return the leftmost element. """ 52 pass 53 54 def remove(self, value): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 55 """ D.remove(value) -- remove first occurrence of value. """ 56 pass 57 58 def reverse(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 59 """ D.reverse() -- reverse *IN PLACE* """ 60 pass 61 62 def rotate(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 63 """ Rotate the deque n steps to the right (default n=1). If n is negative, rotates left. """ 64 pass 65 66 def __add__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 67 """ Return self+value. """ 68 pass 69 70 def __bool__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 71 """ self != 0 """ 72 pass 73 74 def __contains__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 75 """ Return key in self. """ 76 pass 77 78 def __copy__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 79 """ Return a shallow copy of a deque. """ 80 pass 81 82 def __delitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 83 """ Delete self[key]. """ 84 pass 85 86 def __eq__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 87 """ Return self==value. """ 88 pass 89 90 def __getattribute__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 91 """ Return getattr(self, name). """ 92 pass 93 94 def __getitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 95 """ Return self[key]. """ 96 pass 97 98 def __ge__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 99 """ Return self>=value. """ 100 pass 101 102 def __gt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 103 """ Return self>value. """ 104 pass 105 106 def __iadd__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 107 """ Implement self+=value. """ 108 pass 109 110 def __imul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 111 """ Implement self*=value. """ 112 pass 113 114 def __init__(self, iterable=(), maxlen=None): # known case of _collections.deque.__init__ 115 """ 116 deque([iterable[, maxlen]]) --> deque object 117 118 A list-like sequence optimized for data accesses near its endpoints. 119 # (copied from class doc) 120 """ 121 pass 122 123 def __iter__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 124 """ Implement iter(self). """ 125 pass 126 127 def __len__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 128 """ Return len(self). """ 129 pass 130 131 def __le__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 132 """ Return self<=value. """ 133 pass 134 135 def __lt__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 136 """ Return self<value. """ 137 pass 138 139 def __mul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 140 """ Return self*value.n """ 141 pass 142 143 @staticmethod # known case of __new__ 144 def __new__(*args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 145 """ Create and return a new object. See help(type) for accurate signature. """ 146 pass 147 148 def __ne__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 149 """ Return self!=value. """ 150 pass 151 152 def __reduce__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 153 """ Return state information for pickling. """ 154 pass 155 156 def __repr__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 157 """ Return repr(self). """ 158 pass 159 160 def __reversed__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 161 """ D.__reversed__() -- return a reverse iterator over the deque """ 162 pass 163 164 def __rmul__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 165 """ Return self*value. """ 166 pass 167 168 def __setitem__(self, *args, **kwargs): # real signature unknown 169 """ Set self[key] to value. """ 170 pass 171 172 def __sizeof__(self): # real signature unknown; restored from __doc__ 173 """ D.__sizeof__() -- size of D in memory, in bytes """ 174 pass 175 176 maxlen = property(lambda self: object(), lambda self, v: None, lambda self: None) # default 177 """maximum size of a deque or None if unbounded""" 178 179 180 __hash__ = None View Code

 常用功能代码示例:

  

 1 >>> import collections
 2 >>> que = collections.deque()
 3 >>> que.append('Jack1')
 4 >>> que.appendleft('Tom0')
 5 >>> que
 6 deque(['Tom0', 'Jack1'])
 7 >>> que.extend(['li2','lin3'])
 8 >>> que
 9 deque(['Tom0', 'Jack1', 'li2', 'lin3'])
10 >>> que.count('li2')
11 1
12 >>> que.insert(4,'stphen4')
13 >>> que
14 deque(['Tom0', 'Jack1', 'li2', 'lin3', 'stphen4'])
15 >>> que.rotate(2) #循环右移n次
16 >>> que
17 deque(['lin3', 'stphen4', 'Tom0', 'Jack1', 'li2'])

 

队列queue分为单向队列Queue与双向队列deque:

管家婆赢钱一句话 39

单向队列Queue

如:

 1 >>> import queue
 2 >>> obj = queue.Queue()
 3 >>> obj.put('jack')
 4 >>> obj.put('lin')
 5 >>> obj.put('tom')
 6 >>> obj.get()
 7 'jack'
 8 >>> obj.get()
 9 'lin'
10 >>> obj.get()#先进先出,后进后出
11 'tom'

 

管家婆赢钱一句话 40 1 class Queue: 2 '''Create a queue object with a given maximum size. 3 4 If maxsize is <= 0, the queue size is infinite. 5 ''' 6 7 def __init__(self, maxsize=0): 8 self.maxsize = maxsize 9 self._init(maxsize) 10 11 # mutex must be held whenever the queue is mutating. All methods 12 # that acquire mutex must release it before returning. mutex 13 # is shared between the three conditions, so acquiring and 14 # releasing the conditions also acquires and releases mutex. 15 self.mutex = threading.Lock() 16 17 # Notify not_empty whenever an item is added to the queue; a 18 # thread waiting to get is notified then. 19 self.not_empty = threading.Condition(self.mutex) 20 21 # Notify not_full whenever an item is removed from the queue; 22 # a thread waiting to put is notified then. 23 self.not_full = threading.Condition(self.mutex) 24 25 # Notify all_tasks_done whenever the number of unfinished tasks 26 # drops to zero; thread waiting to join() is notified to resume 27 self.all_tasks_done = threading.Condition(self.mutex) 28 self.unfinished_tasks = 0 29 30 def task_done(self): 31 '''Indicate that a formerly enqueued task is complete. 32 33 Used by Queue consumer threads. For each get() used to fetch a task, 34 a subsequent call to task_done() tells the queue that the processing 35 on the task is complete. 36 37 If a join() is currently blocking, it will resume when all items 38 have been processed (meaning that a task_done() call was received 39 for every item that had been put() into the queue). 40 41 Raises a ValueError if called more times than there were items 42 placed in the queue. 43 ''' 44 with self.all_tasks_done: 45 unfinished = self.unfinished_tasks - 1 46 if unfinished <= 0: 47 if unfinished < 0: 48 raise ValueError('task_done() called too many times') 49 self.all_tasks_done.notify_all() 50 self.unfinished_tasks = unfinished 51 52 def join(self): 53 '''Blocks until all items in the Queue have been gotten and processed. 54 55 The count of unfinished tasks goes up whenever an item is added to the 56 queue. The count goes down whenever a consumer thread calls task_done() 57 to indicate the item was retrieved and all work on it is complete. 58 59 When the count of unfinished tasks drops to zero, join() unblocks. 60 ''' 61 with self.all_tasks_done: 62 while self.unfinished_tasks: 63 self.all_tasks_done.wait() 64 65 def qsize(self): 66 #查看并返回队列中的数据个数 67 '''Return the approximate size of the queue (not reliable!).''' 68 with self.mutex: 69 return self._qsize() 70 71 def empty(self): 72 '''Return True if the queue is empty, False otherwise (not reliable!). 73 74 This method is likely to be removed at some point. Use qsize() == 0 75 as a direct substitute, but be aware that either approach risks a race 76 condition where a queue can grow before the result of empty() or 77 qsize() can be used. 78 79 To create code that needs to wait for all queued tasks to be 80 completed, the preferred technique is to use the join() method. 81 ''' 82 with self.mutex: 83 return not self._qsize() 84 85 def full(self): 86 '''Return True if the queue is full, False otherwise (not reliable!). 87 88 This method is likely to be removed at some point. Use qsize() >= n 89 as a direct substitute, but be aware that either approach risks a race 90 condition where a queue can shrink before the result of full() or 91 qsize() can be used. 92 ''' 93 with self.mutex: 94 return 0 < self.maxsize <= self._qsize() 95 96 def put(self, item, block=True, timeout=None): 97 '''Put an item into the queue. 98 99 If optional args 'block' is true and 'timeout' is None (the default), 100 block if necessary until a free slot is available. If 'timeout' is 101 a non-negative number, it blocks at most 'timeout' seconds and raises 102 the Full exception if no free slot was available within that time. 103 Otherwise ('block' is false), put an item on the queue if a free slot 104 is immediately available, else raise the Full exception ('timeout' 105 is ignored in that case). 106 ''' 107 with self.not_full: 108 if self.maxsize > 0: 109 if not block: 110 if self._qsize() >= self.maxsize: 111 raise Full 112 elif timeout is None: 113 while self._qsize() >= self.maxsize: 114 self.not_full.wait() 115 elif timeout < 0: 116 raise ValueError("'timeout' must be a non-negative number") 117 else: 118 endtime = time() + timeout 119 while self._qsize() >= self.maxsize: 120 remaining = endtime - time() 121 if remaining <= 0.0: 122 raise Full 123 self.not_full.wait(remaining) 124 self._put(item) 125 self.unfinished_tasks += 1 126 self.not_empty.notify() 127 128 def get(self, block=True, timeout=None): 129 #取出一个数据,由于单向,故get()无参数 130 '''Remove and return an item from the queue. 131 132 If optional args 'block' is true and 'timeout' is None (the default), 133 block if necessary until an item is available. If 'timeout' is 134 a non-negative number, it blocks at most 'timeout' seconds and raises 135 the Empty exception if no item was available within that time. 136 Otherwise ('block' is false), return an item if one is immediately 137 available, else raise the Empty exception ('timeout' is ignored 138 in that case). 139 ''' 140 with self.not_empty: 141 if not block: 142 if not self._qsize(): 143 raise Empty 144 elif timeout is None: 145 while not self._qsize(): 146 self.not_empty.wait() 147 elif timeout < 0: 148 raise ValueError("'timeout' must be a non-negative number") 149 else: 150 endtime = time() + timeout 151 while not self._qsize(): 152 remaining = endtime - time() 153 if remaining <= 0.0: 154 raise Empty 155 self.not_empty.wait(remaining) 156 item = self._get() 157 self.not_full.notify() 158 return item 159 160 def put_nowait(self, item): 161 '''Put an item into the queue without blocking. 162 163 Only enqueue the item if a free slot is immediately available. 164 Otherwise raise the Full exception. 165 ''' 166 return self.put(item, block=False) 167 168 def get_nowait(self): 169 '''Remove and return an item from the queue without blocking. 170 171 Only get an item if one is immediately available. Otherwise 172 raise the Empty exception. 173 ''' 174 return self.get(block=False) View Code

 

摘要: 对象 对于python来说,一切事物都是对象,对象基于类创建: 注:查看对象相关成员 var,type,dir 基本数据类型...

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